In a galaxy far, far away
A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away the goal of a digital twin was clear. From a stolen digital representation, 莱娅公主和她的叛军指挥官可以找出帝国死星的致命缺陷，并派出他们的x翼战斗机和绝地武士摧毁它.
In the real world
Back in the real world, digital twins are less about destroying intergalactic space stations, 更多的是关于优化各种工业部门中极其复杂和昂贵的资产的寿命和运营. Less cinematic certainly, but infinitely more attractive.
前提是相同的:提供资产完整可视化的数字副本, 依靠数据和技术，为其设计的几乎每个方面提供以前无法获得的远程洞察, operation and performance.
The insight of what-are, 假设和未来的情景使21世纪的数字双胞胎能够改进规划和建设过程，使其尽可能节省时间和资源. Feeding the twin’s information into advanced analytics and data models, gives operators the ability to undertake predictive maintenance, minimise downtime, and prevent potential issues becoming actual problems.
数字双胞胎一旦投入使用，就可以提高单个建筑和工厂的环保性能和生产力. 它们可以帮助资产运营商有效地管理生命周期结束和退役. 他们可以帮助提高技能，而不用把他们送到危险或偏远的地方, more so pertinent during a time of pandemic, with travel restrictions and limited on ground expertise.
What’s more, 从设计阶段的沉浸式技术，可以对现有资产进行改造，以提高性能和生产率, to informing the supply chain in the operations phase.
The concept of a digital twin therefore is a mature one, and its ability to deliver real value is already proven in the manufacturing sector, for example. 那么为什么数字双胞胎还没有在能源或建筑环境等关键领域兑现他们的承诺呢?
As built vs. as maintained
数字双胞胎之所以能在制造业取得成功，部分原因在于它们的可重复性, 模块化资产设计在行业中是一种典型的更直接和成本效益的过程，而不是为独特的, location-specific structures found in sectors like energy.
Equally, although design, 构建和操作专家已经显示出他们在创建3D图像，即使是最复杂的, multi-billion-dollar assets, that is usually where the application of digitization has stopped.
Oil rigs and wind turbines to petrochemical plants and pharmaceutical environments, even cities, have all been digitally rendered, 这个过程在规划和建设过程中产生了显著的效率. Crucially, digital twins are almost always ‘as built’. Once the asset is handed over to operations, there is very little information on how to run and maintain it at an optimal level, and even less on how they are running in real time. 由于各种因素，风力涡轮机的效率和输出将不同于建成时，并随时间变化，例如, physical degradation of the turbine, sub-optimal performance due to maintenance, different wind conditions etc. 为了优化整个风电场的性能，数字双机必须反映每台涡轮机的实际状况和性能.
In other words, the ‘as maintained’ picture is still largely absent. Once fatigue and degradation take their inevitable toll, digital twins no longer match their physical counterparts. 要保持计划的生产水平，需要注入多少化学药剂才合适? What is causing energy consumption and carbon emissions to spike? Where is maintenance budget most efficiently deployed? What is the right investment to make as the asset approaches end of life? Digital twins can provide all these answers – but all too often haven’t done so.
The ‘as maintained’ picture is still largely absent. Once fatigue and degradation take their inevitable toll, digital twins no longer match their physical counterparts.
That’s not to say that work has not been done in this area. There are pockets of brilliance around the world, often buried in different projects, that are looking at bringing more effective data analysis into the mix, so that operators can use and make sense of real-time process information. There has also been work on developing more predictive models, using data coming in from the asset through smart sensors. 但迄今为止，这更像是一种数字涉猎，而不是一种全面发展的数字战略, 它还没有真正被证明是一个可伸缩的参考点，在此基础上构建一致的价值.
They may lack the sci-fi gloss of the Star Wars special effects department, but at a technical level real-world digital twins can be significantly more sophisticated. The 3D visualisation, often developed with drone, cameras and laser scanners, 更像是一个非常细粒度和先进版本的谷歌地图，而不是全息表示，但它可以很容易地操纵产生非凡的洞察力.
For example, as a user ‘walks’ through a digital asset, layers of information can be added to provide real-time or near-real time status updates. Potential issues can be highlighted as red, amber or green and classified as process or asset problems. Visual queries allow users to view specific details – floor plans, maintenance schedules, previous works, equipment serial numbers, costs, schedules, outputs – and make decisions without ever setting foot on the asset.
IoT technology (sensors, connectivity, 分析和网络安全)创建一个自动反馈循环，因此资产本身可以提供其自身状态的更新，以保持其与数字孪生的同步. 新的和旧的多个系统被协调、管理并结合在一起来创造价值.
There isn’t a single provider that can deliver all of that. So, in addition to orchestrating individual technologies, operators must orchestrate multi-faceted teams of vendors and experts.
A new hope
Our capability and expertise
The capability is there – so is the expertise. The answer lies in bringing them together effectively. 这意味着对数字双胞胎采取更多的生态系统方法，并与不仅能整合各种系统的伙伴合作, but the underlying design, build and operate expertise that informs development and maximises value.
As a systems integrator (SI), Wood has put in the hard yards with the hard hats, 这意味着该团队对物理现实的了解程度不亚于它的数字附属品. 这种“行业优先”的专业知识对于整合能源部门和建筑环境所需的所有组件和技能至关重要.
行业优先的方法可以为拟议资产的设计和构造做出充分的贡献, or even take on the build in its entirety. Equally, 它可以确定哪些资产将从改造和所需的技术中受益，以便将投资定向到产生最大价值的地方. Crucially, 像Wood这样的运营商可以将技术提供商关于其交付能力的一些大胆主张置于情境中，并从中调和.
This is particularly important where complex assets are concerned. In the five or more years between investment decisions and asset go-live, technology will advance significantly. The SI must be able to help asset operators and building owners navigate that time lag, and so a ‘future-ready now’ mindset is a key success factor.
Finally, there is the all-important CAPEX vs OPEX question. Renewed capital constraints have placed the issue front and centre, 但一个成功的数字孪生战略更多地基于TOTEX(总支出)方法. 数字双胞胎可以显著减少计划和非计划的运营支出, with direct consequences for profitability. 但获得满足这些要求的必要技术规格几乎肯定会重新平衡资本支出和运营成本的计算. Again, this is something that the right SI will be able to support.
The problem with digital twins to date has not been one of technology. It has been one of approach: of technology first rather than industry first, of traditional financing, and over-dependence on single suppliers. Above all, successful digital twins are about a successfully led ecosystem; no single company can do all this alone. Instead, strength comes from networks and a real alliance. That is how science fiction becomes a digital fact.